Category:Lady Juliana

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Note: There was an earlier ship of this name, commanded by Christopher Stephenson. He sailed in her to Jamaica in 1772. [1] It seems to have been taken by the Americans in 1776. (McM:346, R76II:238, 267, ND5:480, 1027, ND6:671, ND7:300, British ship, Capt Christopher Stephenson/Stevenson, Jamaica to London, 250 tons, prize of PA Chance, Congress, May 1776, or 3 Sep 1776. Fitted out for voyage to France 22 Sep 1777. Force: 5:III:1529, Capt Stevenson, Jamaica to London, 250 tons.)

1777 - Built at Whitby.

West India Trade

12 June 1779 – The Lady Juliana was at Kingston, and an advertisement in the press notified the arrival of a large assortment of dry goods in the Kingston and the Lady Juliana, to be sold by Peter Breton at his Church Street store. (Jamaica Mercury and Kingston Weekly Advertiser, 5-12 June 1779)

The list of goods, published in the following week’s paper included port and sherry, hyson tea, an assortment of china and glassware, stationary and jewellery, mahogany cases of table knives and forks, a large assortment of millinery, drapery and hosiery, fans and feathers, threads, tapes and fringes, buttons, gold and silver spangles, ladies’ riding hats and so on. (Jamaica Mercury and Kingston Weekly Advertiser, 12-19 June 1779)

28 February 1780 – Navigation Pass No.2647. 400 tons, 20 guns. Christopher Sayle. Crew of 9 British and 26 foreign. British-built. To Jamaica. Date of return listed as 6 April 1782.[2]

3 August 1780 – The Lady Juliana was once again at Kingston, with claret, clouting diaper, Irish dowlas, doilies, ladies stockings and the like. [3]

6 October 1780 – An advertisement at Kingston announcing that she was to be freighted to London, under Captain Henry Liddle. [4]

21 February 1781 – She was cleared from Kingston for London, apparently under a Captain Sarah. (Royal Gazette, 17 to 24 February 1781)

21 November 1781 – Navigation Pass No.3701. 400 tons, 20 guns. Christopher Sayle. Crew of 7 British and 18 foreign. British-built. To Jamaica. Date of return listed as 23 June 1783. [5]

20 April 1782 – The Lady Juliana, Christopher Sayle, inwards at Kingston, Jamaica. 310 tons, 10 guns, 27 crew. British-built in 1777. Registered at London, 15 November 1781. Owned by Christopher Stephenson & Co. From London with flour, butter, wine, tea etc. [6]

22 June 1782 – The Lady Juliana, Sayle, outwards from Kingston. For London with sugar, rum, ginger etc. But also beaver skins, ivory, tortoise shells. [7]

31 December 1782 – Navigation Pass No.4247. 400 tons, 10 guns. Christopher Sayle. Crew of 7 British and 18 foreign. British-built. To Jamaica. Date of return listed as 16 January 1784. [8]

23 December 1783 – Navigation Pass No.5151. 310 tons, 2 guns. Christopher Sayle. Crew of 19 British and 6 foreign. British-built. To Jamaica. Date of return listed as 30 November 1785. [9]

12 February 1784 – The Juliana, Christopher Sayle, 310 tons, 2 guns, crew of 25, inwards to Kingston, Jamaica. British-built in 1778. Registered at London, 4 January 1783. Owned by Christopher Stephenson. Carrying barrels of flour and general merchandise from London. [10]

10 May 1784 – The Lady Juliana, Sayle, outwards from Kingston, to London with sugar, rum, coffee, cotton, ivory, tortoise shell, hides. [11]

22 October 1784 – Navigation Pass No.318. 310 tons, 2 guns. C. Sayle. Crew: 19 British, 6 foreign. To Jamaica. Listed as returning 8 October 1785. [12]

10 January 1785 – The Lady Juliana, Sayle, inwards to Kingston from London with dry goods and plantation stores. (Jamaica NOSL, Reel 3, pp.1231-2)

9 May 1785 – The Lady Juliana, Sayle, outwards from Kingston to London with sugar, rum, ginger, etc, plus beeswax, castor oil and balsam. (Jamaica NOSL, Reel 3, pp.1272-3)

27 September 1785 – Navigation Pass No.1831. 310 tons, 2 guns. Chris Sayle. Crew: 15 British, 5 foreign. To Jamaica. Listed as returning, 13 December 1786. (ADM7/104)

10 December 1785 – The Lady Juliana, Sayle, inward to Kingston from London, with flour, bread, beef etc. (Jamaica NOSL, Reel 3, pp.1315-6 & 1336-7)

15 May 1786 – The Lady Juliana, Sayle, outward from Kingston, for London with sugar, rum, mahogany, horns, tamarinds, gum etc. (Jamaica NOSL, Reel 5, pp.37-38)

30 October 1786 – Navigation Licence. No.3384. 379 tons. No guns. Christopher Sayle. Crew numbers not given. To Jamaica. Listed as returning, 12 October 1787. (ADM7/104)

1786 – Lloyd’s Register. Whitby 1777. 500 tons, 3 decks. Sheathed in 1784. Owned by C. Stephenson. Master: C. Sayle. Jamaica. (Lloyd’s Register, 1786)

9 January 1787 – Lady Juliana, Sayle, inwards to Kingston, 400 tons, 2 guns, 25 crew. British-built in 1778. Registered at London, 19 October 1786. Owner: Robert Stevenson. From London with plantation stores. (Jamaica NOSL, Reel 3, pp.618-9)

24 May 1787 – She sailed from Port Royal, Jamaica, with 40 passengers on board, but failed to clear the reefs off the Pallisades and was obliged to anchor. After losing four anchors she returned to port without damage. Sayle was her captain. (Lloyd’s List, 13 July 1787)

12 October 1787 – Navigation Licence. No.4928. 379 tons, 2 guns. Christopher Sayle. 15/5 crew. To Jamaica. (ADM7/106)

13 November 1787 – The Lady Juliana, Sayle, had returned to the river to refit. (Lloyd’s List, 13 November 1787)

The Lloyd’s Register on 1790 and 1791 reported that she had undergone some repairs in 1787.

1788 – Lloyd’s Register. Built at Whitby in 1777. 380 tons, 3 decks. Substantial repairs in 1787. Surveyed in 1787. Owned by Stephensons. Master: C. Sayle. Jamaica trade. (Lloyd’s Register, 1789)

23 January 1788 – The Lady Juliana, Sayle, inwards to Kingston. 379 tons, 2 guns, 20 men. Whitby-built in 1778. Registered at London 27 October 1786. Owned by Joseph Smith. Cargo of refined sugar, port, beer, wine, porter. (Jamaica NOSL, Reel 3, pp.765-6)

23 June 1788 – The Lady Juliana, J. Constable, cleared outwards to London. 370 tons. Owner: Joseph Smith. Cargo – sugar, rum, ginger, cocoa, lignum vitae, ebony. (Jamaica NOSL, Reel 3, pp.847-8)

July 1788 – Captain Furber of the Thomas, from Jamaica, arrived in the Downs on 22 July. In lat. 44, long. 45, he spoke the Lady Juliana, __, from Jamaica to London, out 65 days. (London Chronicle, 6 September 1788)

11 September 1788 – The Lady Juliana, Constable, arrived at Gravesend from Jamaica. (General Evening Post, 11 September 1788)

10 October 1788 – Greenwich Hospital tax paid on the Lady Juliana, (ADM68/206, 26 October 1791)

December 1788 Deptford survey – 401 tons, Whitby-built. She was 10 years old. There were two sets of numbers for the heights between decks: 4’6”, 4’7”, 4’9” and 5’11”, 5’10”, 6’0”. Her bottom was to be caulked and new sheathed. She was getting ready to undock and to come down next spring. (ADM106/3407/279)

6 March 1789 – Navigation Licence. No.7168. 379 tons. George Aitken. 21/7 crew. To America. (ADM7/108)

The EIC reported her measured tonnage at 401 tons. (IOR/L/MAR/C/325)

She was not coppered on this voyage. (IOR/G/12/100, p.81)

Botany Bay and China

19 November 1788 – The Minutes of the Navy Board contain an unusually worded entry which indicates that there had been some form of market-sounding:

"The Board upon considering the different offers and the services the ship may be employed on were of opinion that of Messrs Richards & Moore of the ship Young William of 420 tons was the lowest and most advantageous to the public and were agreed with for her accordingly at eight shillings & five pence per ton if she does not go beyond the line and at nine shillings and five pence if she does. The contractor if she is found fit to ship binds himself in a penalty of £100 that she shall proceed the voyage.

"Give orders to Deptford officers to survey the Young William in conjunction with Captain Teer and report whether she is a proper ship for a transport and if so, to fit her in such manner as he shall desire." (ADM106/2628)

22 November 1788 – In accordance with the Navy Board’s directions of the 19th, Captain Teer and the Deptford officers reported the Young William fit for the Transport Service. She was laden with east country goods and would be clear in about a fortnight. As she had not been sheathed since the latter end of 1784, her bottom would require inspection and re-sheathing, if the service she was ordered upon rendered it necessary. (ADM106/2628; ADM106/3365; Deptford Yard Letterbooks, Series 4, ADM106/3407/277)

24 November 1788 – Richards & Moore to the Navy Board, requesting to substitute the Lady Juliana in place of the Young William, Captain Teer having seen and approved of her. Deptford officers directed to survey her. (ADM106/2628)

- The Navy Board instructed the Deptford Officers to survey the Lady Juliana. (ADM106/3407/279; ADM106/3365/25a)

27 November 1788 – Deptford Officers to Navy Board. The Lady Juliana had been surveyed and they found her to all appearance fit. She was said to have been built at Whitby about ten years before. She was about to go into the dock for refit and they would inspect her then. (ADM106/3407/277; ADM106/2628; ADM106/3365/25a)

2 December 1788 – Deptford Officers to Navy Board. The Lady Juliana had been surveyed and measured and they had found her fit for the transport service. 40138/94 tons, Whitby-built. She was 10 years old. There were two sets of numbers for the heights between decks: 4’6”, 4’7”, 4’9” and 5’11”, 5’10”, 6’0”. Her bottom was to be caulked and new sheathed. She was getting ready to undock and to come down next spring. (ADM106/3407/279; ADM106/3365/26)

12 December 1788 – The Lady Juliana came down to Deptford and reported ready for survey. (ADM106/3407/285)

15 December 1788 – She was taken into pay. Payments made to William Richards dated the ‘taking up’ of the Lady Juliana from this date. (ADM106/3407/286; CO/201/4/184)

19 December 1788 – Deptford Officers to Navy Board. The Lady Juliana came down Friday the 12th and was reported ready for survey in all respects on the owners’ part on Sunday the 14th. However, the river was frozen over on Monday and had continued so ever since. (ADM106/3365/27)

20 December 1788 – Deptford Officers to Navy Board. The Lady Juliana had been surveyed and they found her completely fitted, stored and manned on the owners’ part, and ready to enter into pay (from 15 December). George Aikin was the Master. 40138/94 tons. (ADM106/3407/286; ADM106/3365/27)

2 February 1789 – Agreement with William Richards signed. This differed slightly from the letter provided in December. [It is probable that the government had received news back through the Dutch of the safe arrival of the Fleet – see below.] (‘Conditions on which the Lady Juliana has been engaged as a Transport’, 27 December 1790, Public Record Office, CO201/5/337-338; ‘Conditions on which the convicts were sent to New South Wales in the Lady Juliana’, 25 June 1789, CO201/4/69)

7 February 1789 – According to the Times, she was river-built and had been the first vessel taken by the Americans on a passage from Jamaica to London, but was afterwards retaken by a man of war. (Times, 7.2.89, p.3)

12 & 14 March 1789 – Around 108 women from Newgate were embarked over these days. (PCOM2/176)

22 March 1789 – The Prince of Wales landed at Falmouth. (Log)

23 March 1789 – The first news of the NSW settlement arrived in London (from the Prince of Wales).

25 March 1789 – Lloyd’s List reported the Borrowdale had arrived at Plymouth on this date. (LL, 27.3.89)

c.5-7 April 1789 -

Orders are given to remove 30 female convicts from Newgate to be put on board the Lady Juliana transport, now lying in the Galleons. She has already received on board 152 women, and two years provisions, and it ordered to sail round to Portsmouth to meet the rest of the fleet for Botany Bay. (Felix Farley’s Bristol Journal, 11 April 1789; Whitehall Evening Post, 4 April 1789, though the articles in this paper were dated as late as the 7th)

8 April 1789 – Six female convicts from Lincoln were delivered on board the Lady Juliana at Woolwich – Ann Willcock, Sarah Whitlam, Elizabeth Drury, Mary [Carzene?], Rose Dale and Mary Thompson. On 10 October 1789, William Lumby, the Gaoler, wrote to the Home Office advising, ‘An account of all the remaining convicts has been sent to Mr Richards of Walworth, instead of, I fear, being sent to the Secretary’s Office,’ (HO42/15/310)

c. 24 April 1789 – Around this date, the final decision was taken to send the women to New South Wales.

24 April 1789 – Lord Sydney wrote to the Treasury advising that His Majesty had commanded that the female convicts were to be conveyed to Port Jackson. (Lord Sydney to the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury, 24 April 1789, Home Office: Treasury Entry Books, Public Record Office, HO36/6/253-256; T1/667/398-399, 404; ADM/OT)

20 June 1789 – According to Lloyd’s List, the Lady Juliana sailed from Gravesend. (LL, 23.6.89)

25 June 1789 – The Lady Juliana left Spithead. (Draft of Grenville to Treasury, December 1790, HO35/10)

- Lloyd’s List has her leaving the Downs on this date. (LL, 26.6.89)

26 June 1789 – Sailed from Spithead. (T1/687/71a; ADM106/2630, 28 December 1790)

30 June 1789 – Lloyd’s List has her remaining in the Downs on this date. (LL. 30.6.89)

3 July 1789 – Lloyd’s List has her remaining in the Downs until this date. (LL, 3.7.89 & 7.7.89)

25 July 1789 – She arrived at Plymouth. The Diary or Woodfall’s Register carried a report from Plymouth that she arrived with 250 female convicts:

There are on board some very fine women, together with a number of very wretched beings, indeed; they all appeared in high spirits. (The Diary or Woodfall’s Register, 29 July 1789)

29 July 1789 – She left Plymouth with 226 convicts and six children. (Alley to unknown, 21 March 1790, published in Whitehall Evening Port, 19-21 August 1790; Public Advertiser, 21 August 1790; Dublin Chronicle, 28 August 1790, HRNSW 2:755-756)

1 August 1789 – She sailed from Torbay. (T1/687/71a; ADM106/2630, 28 December 1790)

First Leg

12 August 1789 – The Duke of Savoy, Breaker, from Leghorn, encountered the Lady Juliana at 44.57N, 11.43W. ‘All well.’ (Lloyd’s List, 28.8.89; General Evening Post, 25 August 1789)


21 August 1789 – Arrived at Santa Cruz. (T1/687/72; ADM106/2630, 28 December 1790)

17 September 1789 – Sailed. (T1/687/72; ADM106/2630, 28 December 1790)

- St James’s Chronicle (and other papers) reported her in Port Praya Road on this date, ‘All well’. (St James’s Chronicle or British Evening Post, 20 October 1789)

St Iago

17 September – The African Queen, Captain King, reported seeing the Lady Juliana in Port Praya Road, all well, on this date. (LL, 20.10.89)

23 September – Alley wrote that they arrived at St Iago stopping for water, and departing on the same day (which would not have allowed them to take on much water). (Alley to ??, published in Public Advertiser, 21 August 1790; Dublin Chronicle, 28 August 1790, HRNSW 2:755-756)

- Riou was told by an English whaler that she left St Iago on 21 September, but his source seems to have been in error. (Riou to Stephens and Riou to Banks, HO28/7/104; Nash, pp.25-26, 31)

Second Leg

The naval agent, Edgar, wrote that one convict and one of the crew were lost on this leg:

". . . we met with squalls, calms, heavy rain, hot sultry weather and contrary winds in crossing the line for 52 days." (Extract of Edgar to Navy Board, 9 January 1790, enclosure with Steele to Nepean, 15 July 1790, HO35/10; T1/682/4)

He also said that scurvy had made its appearance among the women and the ship’s company "to a very great degree". (T1/682/4)

Surgeon Alley:

"As we advanced towards the Line the weather was become intolerably hot, which, joined top the heavy rains and calms that soon after came on, made us very apprehensive for the health of the convicts and ship’s company, having at that time sixty dangerously ill. Contrary, however, to expectations, after we crossed the Equator the weather proved very favourable during our passage to the Brazils." (Alley to ??, 21 March 1790, published in Whitehall Evening Port, 19-21 August 1790; Public Advertiser, 21 August 1790; Dublin Chronicle, 28 August 1790, HRNSW 2:755-756)

Lieutenant Edgar later told Riou that they had met with constant calms about the Equator and that the female convicts had been much afflicted with scurvy. The Lady Juliana was very leaky and he had resolved to put in at Rio de Janeiro. (Nash, 157)

Crossing the line – Nicol described the ceremony, which seems to have included the convicts. (p.127)

Rio de Janeiro

25 November 1789 – Arrived in Rio de Janeiro (some sources say 26th but 25th seems to be correct.) (Extract of Edgar to Navy Board, 9 January 1790, enclosure with Steele to Nepean, 15 July 1790, HO35/10 or Alley to ??, 21 March 1790, published in Whitehall Evening Port, 19-21 August 1790; Public Advertiser, 21 August 1790; Dublin Chronicle, 28 August 1790, HRNSW 2:755-756) Edgar is clear that they arrived on the 25th. (T1/682/4; ADM106/2630, 28 December 1790)

Nicol said they remained there for 8 weeks taking in coffee and sugar. (From Flynn’s numbers, it was six.) Again, the convicts had a steady stream of visitors. (p.126) One seaman went off sick (Nicol, p.129)

Alley wrote:

"The markets are well stored with butcher’s meat, and vegetables of all kinds, pineapples, grapes, melons, and oranges abound in great plenty. The convicts were daily victualled with fresh provisions, vegetables, etc." (Alley to unknown, 21 March 1790, published in Whitehall Evening Port, 19-21 August 1790; Public Advertiser, 21 August 1790; Dublin Chronicle, 28 August 1790, HRNSW 2:755-756)

15 December 1789 – Another of the women died. (T1/682/4)

9 January 1790 – Edgar wrote to the Navy Board reporting on the voyage. He wrote that they had had a ‘long and disagreeable passage’ which had taken 11 weeks and 6 days to arrive at Rio de Janeiro. They had stopped at St Iago for water. On the passage from St Iago, they had lost one convict and a crew member. However, ‘on our passage, the scurvy made its appearance amongst the women and ship’s company to a very great degree’. They seem to have quite recovered with the supply of fresh provisions and vegetables. The Lady Juliana had required substantial repairs to her sails, rigging and hull and these had detained them in Rio de Janeiro longer than Edgar had expected. Since their arrival at Rio, three children had been born. (Extract of Edgar to Navy Board, 9 January 1790, enclosure with Steele to Nepean, 15 July 1790, HO35/10; also T1/682/4) [This will be the letter sent by the Navy Board to the Treasury on 24 June and read by Treasury on 2 July and forwarded to Evan Nepean – T29/62/96.]

10 January 1790 – They left Rio de Janeiro. (T1/687/72; Alley to ??, 21 March 1790, published in Whitehall Evening Port, 19-21 August 1790; Public Advertiser, 21 August 1790; Dublin Chronicle, 28 August 1790, HRNSW 2:755-756; ADM106/2630, 28 December 1790)

Third Leg

Alley wrote that nothing particular occurred on this passage, except they lost the carpenter overboard. He drowned ‘in spite of every effort to save him’. (Assuming that Alley was accurate in recalling when this occurred, this was the second crew member lost overboard.) (Alley to unknown, 21 March 1790, published in Whitehall Evening Port, 19-21 August 1790; Public Advertiser, 21 August 1790; Dublin Chronicle, 28 August 1790, HRNSW 2:755-756)

Table Bay

1 March 1790 – In the afternoon, she arrived at Table Bay. (ADM106/2630, 28 December 1790) Surgeon Alley wrote to Evan Nepean (which is interesting since it suggests that he was seen as having a supervisory role). Alley reported that their passage from England had been tedious. Five women had died and seven children had been born. (HRNSW 1:2, p.323) Writing on 22 March, Alley expected three more births shortly. (Alley to unknown, 21 March 1790, published in Whitehall Evening Port, 19-21 August 1790; Public Advertiser, 21 August 1790; Dublin Chronicle, 28 August 1790, HRNSW 2:755-756) (Nash, 157)

30 March 1790 – 1pm: Sailed from the Cape. (Alley to Nepean, HRNSW 1:2, p.323; and Riou to Stephens, HRNSW 1:2, p.338; Calculation of State of the Provisions at NSW, 27 December 1790, at CO201/5/72; Nash, 125, 173)

Fourth Leg

A week before they departed, Alley wrote that he expected that the worst lay ahead of them on the passage to New Holland. (Alley to unknown, 21 March 1790, published in Whitehall Evening Port, 19-21 August 1790; Public Advertiser, 21 August 1790; Dublin Chronicle, 28 August 1790, HRNSW 2:755-756)

We have no details on this passage, but it appears that none of the convicts died.

Arrival at Port Jackson

3 June 1790 – Arrived at Port Jackson. (Phillip to Nepean, 16 June 1791 CO201/5/137; HRNSW 1:345-346)

6 June 1790 – The ship was not able to anchor in Sydney Cove until this date because of currents.

11 June 1790 – According to Collins the women were unloaded on this date.

2 July 1790 – Lady Juliana was discharged from government service at Port Jackson. (Phillip to Nepean, 6 August 1790, HRNSW 1:2. p.389; CO201/5/200)

[The Greenwich Hospital tax was paid from this date for on the Lady Juliana, George Aitkin, for the China charter. 401 tons, 30 men. (ADM68/206)]

NSW to China

25 July 1790 – She sailed for Norfolk Island, China and England. (Easty, p.118; Phillip to Nepean, 6 August 1790, CO201/5/200)

Phillip said that since it was the only vessel in the country, he had to use her to send the provisions to Norfolk. Phillip wrote that if she had not been chartered for China, then he would have sent the men of the Sirius in her. However, the master had advised him that the charter was worth £6,000 to the owners. (Phillip to Nepean, 17 June 1790, HRNSW 1:2, p.350)

8 August 1790 – At Norfolk Island, Bradley reported her passing through on her way to China. (Bradley)

Based on Robertson’s Chart No.2, she sailed with the Scarborough for most of the voyage:

"This track is shown as beginning well west of ‘Wallis’s Island’, just south of a shoal at about longitude 173º E, latitude 12º S. It continues northward until it follows closely a chain of islands, or perhaps two chains of islands, from latitude 5º N to 10º N and longitudes 173º to 174º E. This group is named ‘Lord Mulgrave’s Range’ and from south to north individual islands are named ‘Byrons Island, Hoppers, Woodville, Clarks, Gillespy’s and Allen’s Island’. The second group is really four clusters of very small islands between latitude 6º and 10º N and longitudes 171º and 175º E. Two further, larger, islands at latitude 12º N are called ‘Piscadores, Wallis’. Thereafter the track veers west and north to latitude 16º N, and then on to pass between ‘Seypan Island’, Tinian and ‘Aguygan’ at about latitude 15º N, longitude 145º E." (Richards, Great Circle, 8:1, p.56)

Wallis Island (Uvea) is between Fiji (to the south-west) and Tuvalu (to the north-west), and Samoa (to the east). Thus, they will have sailed to the east of Fiji, turning north and sailing almost direct north, passing well to the west of Wallis Island.

It is obvious that they tracked northward from there, remaining in the same longitude, from 12 degrees south to around 6 degrees north.

He then tracked north-west, through the northern part of the Marshall Islands, passing Ailuk Atoll, known then as Piscadore Island, at 10.20N, 169.52E. They then turned slightly to the north, and headed for the Northern Marianas.

Saipan is one of the larger islands in the Northern Marianas. It is located at 15.25N, 145.75E, 120 miles to the north of Guam. Tinian is the third major island in that group.

From there they will have tracked almost directly west to Macau.


27 October 1790 – The Scarborough, Justinian and Lady Juliana anchored at Whampoa. (IOR G/12/98, p.69; IOR G/12/99, p.81) (See also Flynn, Second Fleet, p.22, based on EIC records; Nicol, p.131)

With the exception of the Lady Juliana, the Botany Bay ships had arrived unexpectedly, so that the committee of supercargoes had no documentation other than the charter parties and instructions brought by the Captains. In the absence of such documentation, they resolved to take them into service on the same terms as the First Fleet ships. (Committee to Court of Directors, 7 January 1791, IOR G/12/98, pp.118-119)

The log of the Marquis of Lansdown reported that four ships from Botany Bay had anchored at Whampoa. (IOR L/MAR/B/373B)

The Lady Juliana arrived with a number of her crew seriously ill. Aitken contracted with Augustus Beyer, the surgeon of the Scarborough, to attend to his men, which he did for several months. (Byar v Atkin, 10 December 1791, Evening Mail, 9-12 December 1791; Morning Chronicle, 12 December 1791)

31 October 1790 – The Quan Che Fou measured the following ships:

 Surprize		Munqua is her security
 Justinian		Puan khequa is her security
 Scarborough		Chowqua is her security
 Lady Juliana		Shykinqua is her security (IOR G/12/98, p.72)

3 November 1790 – The ‘measurage’ of the Surprize, Justinian, Scarborough and Lady Juliana. The Lady Juliana:

 Broad – 22.4
 Long – 63.2
 Measurage – Taels 707,840
 Present – Taels 1950,000

Security was provided by Shy Kinqua. (IOR G/12/99, p.15)

12 November 1790 – The Canton supercargoes appointed Captains John Woolmore and Essex Henry Bond to survey the five Botany Bay ships:

"To Captains John Woolmore & Henry Essex Bond (sic).


"We request that you will repair on board the ships, Lady Juliana, Justinian, Scarborough, Surprize and Neptune, taking with you your carpenters & caulkers, and after holding a survey on the said ships, report to us your opinion whether they are in a proper state to receive cargoes for Europe on account of the Hon’ble Company." (IOR G/12/98, pp.83-84)

14 November 1790 – Payment by supercargoes to Captain Marshall and Captain Aitkin on charter party terms – Tales 352,941 each. (IOR G/12/99, p.22)

17 November 1790 – The supercargoes read a letter from Woolmore and Bond:

"The Scarborough is the only ship as yet in condition to receive the Hon’ble Company’s cargo. The Surprize was not ready for our survey, the Justinian, Lady Juliana and Neptune’s lower decks, waterways, spirketings, mast wedges etc not being sufficiently well caulked, are not yet in condition." (IOR G/12/98, p.85)

18 November 1790 – Payments by the supercargoes to

 Captain Marshall on charterparty terms		Tales 352,911
 Captain Aitkin on charterparty terms		        Tales 352,911 (IOR G/12/98, p.86)

30 November 1790 – Woolmore and Bond wrote to the supercargoes again. The Surprize and the Lady Juliana were now in condition to receive the Company’s cargo. (IOR/G/12/98, p.92)

- Payment by supercargoes to Captain Aitken under the charterparty terms, Tales 705,882. (IOR/G/12/99, p.34)

Lloyd’s List of 21 May 1791 reported the following ships at China:

Surprize, Amstie Justinian, Maitland Scarborough, Marshal Lady Juliana, Aitkin Neptune, Trail (LL, 21.5.91)

Throughout the period when these ships were at Canton, there were ongoing disputes with the Chinese merchants over the quality of the tea being supplied.

6 December 1790 – 125 chests of Bohea packed at Pinqua’s for the Justinian, and 75 chests for the Lady Juliana. This is the first mention of tea being packed for the Second Fleet ships. (IOR G/12/99, p.39)

21 December 1790 – No shipping off this day due to a great festival with the Chinese. (IOR G/12/98, p.109)

24 January 1791 – The Committee came to the resolution to send on board the Lord Walsingham, Surprize, Justinian, Scarborough and Lady Juliana, 100 chests of Bohea tea & 200 on the Neptune. They were concerned from the great scarcity of Congo that they should be under the necessity of loading the Henry Dundas exclusively with Bohea. (IOR G/12/98, p.132)

31 January 1791 – Supercargoes made payments to Captain Aitkin of the Lady Juliana and Captain Maitland of the Justinian on account, both Tales 705,889. (IOR G/12/99, p.128)

– Minerva, Barwell, Francis, Marquis of Lansdown, Royal Charlotte, Belmont, Hillsborough, Royal Admiral, Osterly, Triton, Hindoostan and Admiral Sir Edward Hughes sailed. (IOR G/12/98, p.135)

6 February 1791 – The trade opened again this day (possibly after Chinese New Year) and it was appointed the last shipping day in private trade for: Surprise, Justinian, Scarborough and Lady Juliana. For the Neptune, it was to be the 20th. (IOR G/12/98, p.152)

18 February 1791 – No shipping due to a Chinese festival. (IOR G/12/98, p.154)

23 February 1791 – Captain Aitkin informed the supercargoes that the Lady Juliana would require 800 chests of Singlo to complete her loading. (IOR G/12/98, p.156)

26 February 1791 – The Surprize, Scarborough, Lady Juliana and Neptune were loaded. (IOR G/12/98, p.161)

27 February 1791 – Supercargoes made payments to Captain Aitkin (Tales 705,882), Captain Maitland (Tales 352,941) and Captain Marshall (Tales 494,117). (IOR G/12/98, p.162; IOR G/12/99, p.148)

2 March 1791 – Captain Aitkin wrote a letter to the supercargoes concerning the delay in completing the loading and a claim for demurrage. (The letter confused the question of demurrage with the question of liability if the ship was loaded and dispatched later than a particular date and the cargo damaged at sea.)

"In justice to my owners, I acquaint you that I have repeatedly requested to be laden. By charterparty, it appears to me one month is allowed from the 15th of January to the 15th of February as after that time damage on the cargo must fall on the Company & if my ship was not ready to receive her cargo before the fifteenth day of January, it was at your option to load her and would become a total loss to the owners, to return to England in ballast.

"The above entitles me to claim a demurrage to pay for the delaying of my ship longer than one month after my arrival and was ready to receive my cargo, the sum of not less than the daily pay of the Justinian but more in proportion to tonnage." (IOR G/12/98, p.165)

12 March 1791 – At 7am, the supercargoes dispatched the following ships: Lord Thurlow, Woodcot, Earl Talbot, Earl of Abergavenny, Ceres, Belvedere, Surprize, Justinian, Scarborough, Lady Juliana, Lord Walsingham, Neptune, Henry Dundas. (IOR G/12/98, p.165; IOR G/12/99, p.191)

20 March 1791 – She joined a convoy of East India ships for England. (Flynn, p.22)

21 March 1791 – The five Botany Bay ships sailed in a convoy with the Earl of Abergavenny, Lord Thurlow, Ceres, Earl Talbot, Woodcot, Henry Dundas, Lord Walsingham, Belvedere, under the protection of HMS Leopard, 50 guns, and HMS Thames, 32 guns. (LL, 19.8.91)

The Lady Juliana carried:

 117 (or 100) chests of Chinaware
 4,611 peculs of black teas
 233 peculs of green teas
 43 pieces of silk.

The total cargo was worth Tales 66,303,733. Of the teas,

 Bohea – 1,408,43 peculs
 Best Bohea – 1,119,80 peculs
 Congo – 937 peculs
 Hyson skins – 100,19 peculs
 Singlo – 452,34 peculs. (IOR/G/12/99, pp.153 & 160-161)

The Lady Juliana would be paid for 401 measured tons at £10 per ton and 140 surplus tons at £5 per ton. (IOR/L/MAR/C/325)

China to England

20 March 1791 – The Surprize sailed with: HMS Leopard and Thames, Abergavenny, Belvedere, Walsingham, Ceres, Henry Dundas, Neptune, Justinian, Woodcot, Talbot, Juliana, Scarborough and Lord Thurlo. (Anstis, Journal of the Surprize, IOR L/MAR/B/447B & C)

21 March 1791 – The five Botany Bay ships sailed in a convoy with the Earl of Abergavenny, Lord Thurlow, Ceres, Earl Talbot, Woodcot, Henry Dundas, Lord Walsingham, Belvedere, under the protection of HMS Leopard, 50 guns, and HMS Thames, 32 guns. (LL, 19.8.91)

2 April 1791 – AM: Lord Thurlo took the Lady Juliana in tow. (Anstis)

14 April 1791 – 7am: The Commodore made the signal to anchor. The convoy at anchor next to Pulo Ling. (Anstis)

[Over the next few days, they anchored and made sail a number of times – the reasons are not clear.]

18 April 1791 – 3pm: Commodore made signal to anchor. (Anstis)

29 April 1791 – AM: Anchored at Angra (or Angree) Point. Watering. (Anstis)

30 April 1791 – Completed watering. (Anstis)

2 May 1791 – Signal to officers to repair on board their ships. (Anstis)

3 May 1791 – Made sail. (Anstis)

4 May 1791 – Straits of Sunda. (Anstis)

5 May 1791 – Saw Princes Island. (Anstis)

6 May 1791 – The Royal Navy vessels parted company from the fleet. (LL, 19.8.91)

- PM: Parted company with the Leopard and Thames. Captain Thompson of the Lord Thurlo was now Commodore. (Anstis)

- AM: Thompson signalled for an officer from each ship. (Anstis)

16 May 1791 – AM: Saw a strange sail. (Anstis)

17 May 1791 – PM: The strange sail was the Carnatic from London.

- AM: Thompson made the signal for all commanders. Based on information from the Carnatic, the different ships of the convoy were to make the best of their way to St Helena. (Anstis)

18 May 1791 – AM: 8 sail in sight. (Anstis)

26 June 1791 – The Lady Juliana and the Neptune arrived at Table Bay from China. (King to Nepean, 3 July in HRNSW 1:2, p.492; Parker to Navy Board, 25 July 1791 in HO35/11; also Gorgon journal; Mrs Parker journal)

3 July 1791 – Philip Gidley King from the Cape to Nepean:

The Neptune and Lady Juliana from New Sth Walesby way of China, and the Active Transport from England, bound to Port Jackson, anchored in False Bay on the 26th ultimo. The Neptune’s Departure from Port Jackson being later than any other Ship, and. . . it is more than probable she will be detained at the Cape of Good Hope for some weeks, as she is in a bad state and wants many repairs. . . (King to Nepean, 3 July 1791, King Letterbook, SLNSW C187, p.65; and in HRNSW 1:2, p.493)

13 July 1791 – The Lady Juliana took on board William Pamphillion, a seaman from the Gorgon, who was invalided home. (Gorgon Journal)

6 August 1791 – The Lady Juliana was at St Helena when the Warren Hastings sailed. She was one of many Botany Baymen in the region at the time.

When the Warren Hastings sailed from False Bay on 19 July 1791, she left behind the following:

 • The Albemarle, Admiral Barrington, Queen, Active and Britannia of the Third Fleet.
 • The Neptune, on her way back from China, of the Second Fleet.
 • HMS Gorgon which had lately arrived from Europe.

14 August 1791 – The Neptune and the Lady Juliana sailed from St Helena. (Lloyd’s Evening Post, 24-26 October 1791)

23 October 1791 – The Lady Juliana, Aitkin, arrived in the Downs. (LL, 25.10.91)

25 October 1791 – An officer from the Lady Juliana arrived at India House with an account of the ship’s safe arrival off Margate. She had lost only five people in the voyage out. And she had returned with the Admiralty and the Secretary of State’s office (or to the blue and buff). (Oracle, 26 & 27 October 1791)

26 October 1791 – The Lady Juliana arrived at Gravesend. (LL, 28.10.91)

- A letter was read at the Court of Directors from Captain G. Aitkin of the Lady Juliana, dated in Margate Roads on 24th instant. (IOR/B/114/546)

– Greenwich Hospital tax paid on the Lady Juliana, George Aitkin, for the Botany Bay charter. 401 tons, 32 men. (ADM68/206)

29 October 1791 – The Neptune and the Lady Juliana had returned with around 500 letters. (Whitehall Evening Post, 27-29 October 1791)

14 December 1791 – She was moored at the Greenland Dock and offered for service at Lloyds Coffee House.

Transport Service

31 May 1792 – Registered. No.129/1792. Owners: Michael Henley of Wapping, Merchant. Master: William Allen. Built at Whitby in 1778. 2 decks, 3 masts. 108’ x 29’3” x 5’4”. 379 tons. Square sterned ship. No gallery. No figurehead. (BT107/9)

8 November 1792 – William Moffatt endorsed as Master. (BT107/9, 31.5.92)

27 February 1793 – Contracted to convey horses belonging to the Duke of York to Holland. (ADM106/2119)

18 April 1793 – The Lady Juliana, Richard Nicholson, had been surveyed by the Transport Service as a horse transport (although he was also listed as Master of the London, so they may have been looking for a new captain). She was of 401 tons and 15 years old (which takes her back to 1778). She had been built at Whitby and had a single bottom. She was 5’11” or 6’ between decks. (ADM106/3409/91)

22 April 1793 – The Lady Juliana was surveyed by the Deptford Yards for employment by the Transport Service. She was of 401 tons. William Moffatt was her master. (22 April 1793, ADM106/3409/95)

13 May 1793 – Ordered to convey hay and flour to Ostend. (T27/43/263; ADM106/2119)

5 July 1793 – The Lady Juliana, 401 tons, was included in a list of naval transports available. She was taken into service 20 April 1793. (HO42/26/43a)

15 August 1793 – Edward Robson endorsed as Master. (BT107/9, 31.5.92)

15 August 1793 – Navigation Licence. No.3990. 279 tons, 4 guns. Edward Robson. 6/18 crew. To America, West Indies & Mediterranean. (ADM7/112)

19 September 1793 – Wanted for service by the Navy Board. (ADM106/2647)

Early October 1793 – The Lady Juliana, 401 tons, appointed for Ordnance Stores, was at Portsmouth. (HO42/26/697a)

November 1793 – She was surveyed again. Her owner was M. Henley and she was surveyed for a voyage from London to unknown. Wm Moffatt was her Captain.

16 December 1794 – The Lady Juliana, Eggleston, from Copenhagen to India, was put into the Humber with lots of rudder and other damage. (Lloyd’s List, 16 December 1794)

Early 1795 – The Lady Juliana, 401 tons, was one of a number of unappropriated transports at the Nore under Lieutenants Woodriff and Young. She had capacity for 194 troops. (ADM1/3730/141)

17 May 1795 – Navigation Act pass. 379 tons. William Chapman. No guns report. Only 6 British crew reported. Foreign voyage. (ADM7/114)

15 June 1795 – William Chapman endorsed as Master. (BT107/9, 31.5.92)

17 June 1795 – Navigation Licence. No.6519. 379 tons. William Chapman. 6 British, no foreign crew(!). To ‘Foreign Voyage’. (ADM7/114)

15 April 1797 – She arrived at Lisbon from Portsmouth. (ADM108/168)

3 July 1797 – Sir Robert Calder wrote advising that the Lady Juliana was too large for the watering service. The Admiral directed her to be sent to England immediately due to the bad conduct of the Master and the unfitness of the ship, with a request that she never again be employed in the service, ‘both ship and master being notorious wherever they go’. (ADM108/48/199)

14 August 1797 – The Lady Juliana arrived in England with wine and lemons from Gibraltar. She was the only ship available and so was immediately commissioned once again to transport water. (ADM108/48/199)

14 November 1798 – Captain Patton recommended the Lady Juliana and the St Mary’s Planter be appropriated for the reception of provisions for Earl St Vincent’s fleet as they were now returned refitted. (ADM108/57/168)

17 November 1798 – Captain Rains (Deptford) reported to the Transport Board that the Lady Juliana and the Emily may receive the clothing for the regiments mentioned going to Gibraltar, Lisbon and Portugal. (ADM108/57/178)

30 November 1798 – Mr Richard Birt at the Victualling Office to the Transport Board, requesting permission to ship on the Lady Juliana, 24 chairs for Mr Tucker, to Lisbon and from thence to Gibraltar, where Mr Tucker was appointed Agent Victualler. (ADM108/57/219)

3 December 1798 – The Transport Board approved the shipment of the chairs if that could be done without inconvenience. (ADM108/57/219)

14 December 1798 – Being loaded at Deptford under the direction of the Transport Board. (ADM108/57/248)

- The Victualling Board to the Transport Board advising that Mr Chapman, Master of the Lady Juliana, victualler, had signed bills of lading for provisions for Earl St Vincent’s fleet. (ADM108/57/250)

18 December 1798 – Captain Rains (Deptford) advised the Transport Board that the Lady Juliana, victualler, had received her cargo and had space for the military telegraphs, which he had ordered her to receive at Portsmouth. (ADM108/57/257)

22 December 1798 – The Lady Juliana was reported by Captain Rains of the Transport Service as sailing from Deptford for Portsmouth. (ADM108/168; ADM108/57/270)

7 January 1799 – The Lady Juliana, 379 tons, Navy Victualler, for Lisbon, was at Portsmouth with other transports. (ADM1/3737/265)

1 February 1799 – Had received slight damage at Portsmouth which would be speedily repaired. Report from Captain Patton to Transport Board. (ADM108/58/366)

7 February 1799 – The Lady Juliana, 401 tons, was among a list of loaded Navy Victuallers, at Portsmouth, destined for Lisbon under Lieutenant Elliott, with 18 other ships. (ADM1/3737/308)

21 September 1799 – The Lady Juliana, 379 tons, W. Chapman, arrived with a convoy from Gibraltar under HMS Pallas. (ADM108/20/23)

8 February 1800 – Transport Board to Evan Nepean, advising that the Lady Juliana cartel arrived yesterday at Ramsgate with 341 British prisoners of war from Flushing, which port the Ann cartel left at the same time with 309 Russians and 2 seamen. (ADM1/3739/113-114)

10 April 1804 – Ralph Charter endorsed as Master. (BT107/9, 31.5.92)

17 May 1806 – William Pearson endorsed as Master. (BT107/9, 31.5.92)

1807 – Voyage to the Honduras, returned 48%. (Simon P. Ville, English Shipowning During the Industrial Revolution: Michael Henley and Son, London Shipowners, 1770-1830, Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1987, p.124)

13 April 1808 – Ralph Charter endorsed as Master. (BT107/9, 31.5.92)

15 November 1811 – David Smith endorsed as Master. (BT107/9, 31.5.92)

10 March 1812 – Thomas Darby endorsed as Master. (BT107/9, 31.5.92)

1813 – She loaded timber at Quebec. (Ville, p.134)

October 1815 – She went north around Scotland from Liverpool to Shields, a passage which took 38 days due to adverse gales and caused considerable wear and tear on her ropes and sails together with the loss of part of her sheathing. (Ville, p.137)

6 January 1816 – David Smith endorsed as Master. (BT107/9, 31.5.92)

July 1817 – Adverse weather caused passages from England to Quebec as long as 13 weeks when 3 was the norm. (Ville, p.137)

20 July 1819 – David Moore endorsed as Master. (BT107/9, 31.5.92)

23 June 1820 – David Smith endorsed as Master. (BT107/9, 31.5.92)

November 1821 – the weather on the passage to Onega was very severe ‘enough to tear a new ship to pieces much more an old one’. (Ville, p.137)

15 April 1825 – Joseph Henley, son and executor of late Michael Henley Esq., of Wapping and Derby – 64/64 shares to be transferred to William Henry Baskworth of Old Boar Street, London, merchant. (BT107/9, 31.5.92)

16 April 1825 – New registration. (BT107/9, 31.5.92)

Ville provides some numbers on the profitability of the Lady Juliana under Michael Henley (pp.178-181):

Michael Henley regularly tested the market for his ships at Shields. He offered the Lady Juliana for sale in September 1792 for £2000; in March 1803 for £1,450; in November 1813 for £4,000 and in January 1816 for £2,400. (Ville, p.51)

By 1803, she was 25 years old and showing her age. Stewart Omond, one of Henley’s regular Captains complained that he was not given a better vessel: ‘But when stringers com and geats good ships and handey ones and oald servents bad ships and unhandey ones it apers that [if] I am not wirthey of a better ship then the Ladey Juliana I think I am not wirthey of eany.’ He was quickly given another vessel. The Lady Juliana was not overhauled until 1807. (Ville, pp.73-74 and table above.)

Between 1797 and 1803, the Lady Juliana had four major repairs which cost £2,469. This works out at £1 per ton per annum. A further £2,200 was spent on outfitting her with new stores. Other costs amounted to about £12,000. This totals to £17,000, leaving repair costs at about 30% of the total.

In February 1797 she was repaired at Dudman’s Yard at Deptford for £1,080, described as a ‘new top & great repair’. In June 1803 she was resheathed and thoroughly repaired at Hurry’s dock at Shields at a cost of £776. Ville guesstimates a figure for repairs of around 25% of total costs. (Ville, pp.133-134)

The average age of the nineteen seamen on the Lady Juliana in 1793 was 23, the youngest being 20 and the oldest 30. The mate was 38 and the cook, 45. (Ville, p.92)

Ultimate Fate

Her ultimate fate is unknown.


  1. Gentleman’s Magazine, Vol.51, p.615
  2. ADM7/103
  3. Royal Gazette, 29 July to 5 August 1780
  4. Royal Gazette, 14 to 21 October 1780
  5. ADM7/103
  6. Jamaica NOSL, Reel 3, pp.302-3
  7. Jamaica NOSL, Reel 3, pp.315-6
  8. ADM7/103
  9. ADM7/103
  10. Jamaica NOSL, Reel 3, pp.368-9
  11. Jamaica NOSL, Reel 3, pp.404-5
  12. ADM7/104

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